The sievelike mould was fitted with an open wooden frame called a deckle.
One other quite long-fibered paper G17 was noted, dating from around based on the watermark. The stampers, on the other hand were slow, and unlike the Hollanders they could not be adjusted to give a more aggressive, faster cutting action if desired unless the pulp was beaten at a lower consistency, which would have been uneconomical.
Subsequent pack pressing in smaller presses at much less pressure could be used to expel excess water. Richard de Bas stampers, Ambert, France; top view. While early voices are generally silent on the matter, papermakers at later dates wished for an alternative to retting.
The article has a wealth of informative footnotes. The author argues for caution in dating incunabula solely by watermark evidence and reminds the reader that the date of paper manufacture only gives at best the earliest possible date of use, but not necessarily the actual date of use.
Thereafter such items were repeatedly washed, and used again and again until they became too weak to be serviceable and were finally collected as rags and sold to the paper mill.
But be aware that general types such as the fleur-de-lis or the IHS monogram were in widespread use across Europe. Important sensitivities were passed from one to another while working together day after day, year after year. Geographical changes also took place as many of the early mills were small and had been situated in rural areas.
It seems, in a way, odd that the fine white rags that formed the raw material for making higher-quality papers would have required such continuous washing to yield a fine white finished sheet. In most mills, Lalande tells us, there were usually six troughs, three for breaking, two for beating and one for brushing out.
If we were able to travel back in time to the age of rag fermentation for papermaking, the man in charge in a good mill would have skills that were at least as highly respected as those of the man in the same town who made good wine.
Lalande indicates that the women in mills in the Auvergne sorted rags into three grades: His knowledge and experience led him to write the most comprehensive history of western papermaking of the time. It is an ongoing project and I will be adding interesting watermarks to the site often, so keep checking.
In this way the sheet precipitates onto the brass screen while the water drains away through the interstices and a real sheet of paper remains on the mould. Rosenband says that at the Montgolfier mill in Vidalon-le-Haut, circadaylight alone sufficed from May 1 through July 31, but for other months, the table in figure 18 below applied.
Watermarks & Foolscaps: Exploring the History of Paper Production. If you follow me on Instagram you may have seen this intriguing watermark in my first edition of Nehemiah Grew's The Anatomy of Vegetables Begun, the first work of scientific botany.
Watermarks are often obscured under text, but in this case I was lucky, as it happened. Contemporaneous descriptions of the difference between paper made with fermented versus unfermented fiber can be found in work by Desmarest and other French writers who sought explanations for what they considered to be the superior quality of Dutch papers of the late eighteenth century.
F12 Paper Mills and Makers, Part Two Including notes on bank molds, sketches of watermarks, and information from an 18th century journal or ledger.
F13 Paper Mills and Makers, Part Three Includes list of mills by state from Tench Cox, TS P, Conservation Watermarks, mainly of the 17th and 18th centuries, v.1 Briquet album: a miscellany on watermarks, v.2 Zonghi's watermarks, v.3 Briquet's Opuscula, v.4 Nostitz papers, v.5 Paper Mills and Paper Makers in England, v.6 (located in Prints & Drawings Study Room) Ancient Paper-Mills of Basle, v.7 Ancient Paper-Mills of the former Austro-Hungarian Empire, v.8 History of.
Another type of three crescents watermark in Isl. Ms. 44, p In Egypt, where Isl. Ms. 44 was likely copied, "tre lune" watermarked paper appears in local court documents as early as From the later half of the 17th century until the 19th century the paper was quite popular, eventually overtaking other watermarked papers in the Egyptian markets.
Watermarks were widely used in paper manufactured before the advent of the cheap, woodpulp-based product (which began in the midth century), and they persisted in high quality papers (and still persist to the present day).18th century paper watermarks