According to the text of the speech, as furnished by the Harold B. Amazingly, she beat 51 other contenders, including U. These tensions are expressed particularly in her autobiographical works. That she chose a Lakota name, however, instead of one from her home dialect might indicate a profound dislocation from her family origins, as well as a conscious choice.
By though, she had a job teaching at Carlisle Indian school, whose founder, Army officer Richard Henry Pratt, had taken the mottoes "From savagery to civilization" and "We must kill the savage to save the man". See E-books She disagreed with the boarding school approach -- teaching Indians agriculture and homemaking, forced Christianity, eradication of Indian culture and language.
Currently, most swimmers use a basic front crawl with a six-beat kick. After leaving college inGertrude Simmons, as she was then known, secured a teaching position at Pennsylvania's Carlisle Indian School. From her letters to him it was because he wanted a helpmeet and child-bearing wife, while she had other ideas about the life she wanted.
In addition, she said, her father had promised that if she made it, he would buy her any sports car she wanted. From her new base in the nation's capital, which she would call home for the rest of her life, she continued to serve as secretary of the Society until and editor of its major publication, American Indian Magazine.
Sworn statements amply show that the report of the Institute for Government Research could all be transformed into the superlative degree and not begin to tell the whole story of Indian exploitation. Inshe was elected secretary of that organization, and became active while still living in Utah, in many Indian self-help organizations.
The Santee Agency newspaper printed some of her school essays with pride. American Opera and its Composers says: In her well-known American Indian Stories, for example, she both expresses a literary account of her life and delivers a political message.
The second half of the book is a collection of essays and new stories. Bonnin's correspondence with Charlotte Jones gives us insight, I contend, into the ways that such prominent American Indians were producing and revising their public Indianness in the s. Literary career[ edit ] Zitkala-Sa, as photographed by Joseph Keiley in It was significant for adapting the Native American oral musical tradition to a written one.
As a long-distance swimmer, she was completely unknown; before that day, her longest race had been yards. She planned to gain more through her education than becoming a house-keeper, as the school anticipated girls would do.
If you would like to authenticate using a different subscribed institution that supports Shibboleth authentication or have your own login and password to Project MUSE, click 'Authenticate'. She had, in addition, beauty of face and figure and abounding health. The first group of its kind to be established and managed solely by Native Americans, it operated on the principle that assimilation was ultimately the best course for the country's Native American population.
There she received many scholastic honors, for writing and oratory. In Fisher's estimation Zitkala-Sa's act of self-naming asserted both her independence from and her ties to Sioux culture.
At this time, she gathered her earlier articles and published them as a second book, American Indian Stories, Under this act, the government returned some lands to them as communal property, which it had previously classified as surplus, so they could put together parcels that could be managed.
Just quitely [sic] secure information, but do not attempt to see them alone, always have a good friend with you. After she and her husband moved to the Ute Reservation in Utah, they served in varied capacities for fourteen years. The missionaries had given her a bag of glass marbles, and the image of ice at the heart of the marbles prefigures the coldness that she later experienced when at the missionaries' hands.
She gave up the swim only two miles from France. Lillian Cannon of Baltimore, Maryland was also preparing to make the crossing. There she discovered that her brother had been replaced as an Indian agent on the reservation, when her mother told her that "the Great Father at Washington sent a white son to take your brother's pen from him.
To care for her ailing mother and to gather material for her collection of traditional Sioux tales, she returned to the Yankton Reservation in According to Hertzberg, Chinquilla visited the Tongue River Agency when she was in her sixties in an unsuccessful attempt to learn the details of her parents and her birth.
InBonnin was elected secretary of the Society of American Indians, and not long after, she and her husband moved to Washington, D. Zitkala-Sa adds a note on the name of this deity, which means "an absolute power," that implies that in later years she regained respect for the faith that she thought she had lost.
The second half of the book is a collection of essays and new stories. 1 HIST Dr. Schaffer “The School Days of an Indian Girl”, by Zitkala-Ša (Gertrude Simmons Bonnin) ()1 Your textbook also has an excerpt from Zitkala-Ša’s.
Zitkala-Sa: Zitkala-Sa, (Lakota: “Red Bird”) writer and reformer who strove to expand opportunities for Native Americans and to safeguard their cultures. Gertrude Simmons was the daughter of a Yankton Sioux mother and a Euro-American father.
A vital link between the oral cultures of tribal America and the literate culture of contemporary American Indians, Gertrude Bonnin was the third child of Ellen Tate 'I yohiwin Simmons, a full-blood Yankton Sioux.
Gertrude Simmons Bonnin.
Native American activist and writer of the Sioux tribe Gertrude Simmons Bonnin () was prominent in the Pan-Indian movement of the s and s. She devoted her life to lobbying for the rights of Native Americans.
Essay about Biography of Caroline Gertrude Ederle Biography About Caroline Gertrude Ederle American swimmer, the first woman to swim across the English Channel.
Born in New York City, Ederle began swimming as a young child and started competing as a teenager.Biography notes of gertrude bonin